TD 1-1: National Population and Labor Force


National Population: The national population data are based on postcensal and intercensal estimates. Postcensal population estimates are population counts, which are derived using data from the most recent census (adjusted for net census undercoverage) and estimates of the components of population change since that census. Postcensal estimates are then obtained using the component method. This method can be equated to a population accounting system, where modifications are made to the censal estimate by adding and subtracting the components of population change that occurred between the date of the last census and the reference date of the estimate.

Intercensal estimates are produced every five years and reconcile previous postcensal estimates with the latest census counts adjusted for net undercoverage. They are generated as soon as the census population counts become available. This process typically takes two years after census data collection to complete.

Estimates of the population are produced first for each province and territory, and then summed to get an estimate of the population of Canada.

Postcensal estimates of population by age and sex are produced using the cohort component approach, where the population is aged from year to year and the components are organized according to age and sex cohorts. A cohort is a group of persons who experience a certain event in a specified period of time. For the calculation of age and sex estimates, birth cohorts (those persons born during the same year) by sex are used. Therefore the data required for the cohort component method includes demographic events, such as deaths, immigration, emigration, that can be directly linked to persons belonging to the same birth cohorts by sex.

Urban percentages: Canadian urban and rural population percentages are based on 1996, 2001 and 2006 census counts. Urban and rural data are based on the following definitions. Canadian urban areas have minimum population concentrations of 1,000 and a population density of at least 400 persons per square kilometer, based on the previous census population counts. All territory outside of urban areas is considered rural. Taken together, urban and rural areas cover all of Canada.

Population Density: Population density is the number of persons per square kilometer. To obtain the population density, divide the total population estimates that are given in this table by the land area (9,093,507 square kilometers). Please note that the method used for calculating area has been updated. As a consequence, historical estimates differ from the estimate provided in this table.

Labour force: The total labour force is composed of those members of the civilian non-institutional population 15 years of age and over who are employed or unemployed. These labour force estimates are based on information obtained through the Labour Force Survey (LFS). The total labour force as a percent of total population is derived using the labour force data and the total national population counts provided in this table.

The total employed labour force is composed of those members of the civilian non-institutional population 15 years of age and over who are employed. The employed labour force as a percent of total population is derived using the employed labour force data and the total national population counts provided in this table.


National population: Includes Mexican citizens and foreign nationals normally residing in the country; Mexicans serving abroad in the diplomatic corps and their family members; and Mexican citizens who reside in Mexico and cross the border daily to work in another country. Data do not include foreign nationals serving in diplomatic missions in Mexico or their family members.

Age structure: The calculation of the percentages by age group excludes to the not specified. The population data from 2006 to 2009 reserves until the end of the 1990-2010 demographic reconciliation exercise, which is in the process of being updated according to the latest census data.

Percentage urban: The urban population is based on areas with more than 2,500 inhabitants.

Population density: The population density for the period 1995-2010 was estimated on the basis of a total surface area of 1,959,248 square kilometers (land area). See ”Area” below for more information.

Demographic reconciliation: The exercise consists of simultaneous demographic reconciliation to assess the population by age and sex from the latest census events, including the demographic trends that occurred during the intercensal period; i.e. new births are added to the population, deaths and the net balance of migration with the outside are subtracted, and the result is contrasted with the population enumerated in the next event.The demographic reconciliation requires, in addition to the counting and census data, all information available on deaths, births and internal and international migration, as well as demographic data from national surveys and from the United States.

Continental area and Maritime area: The Continental area refers to Mexican territory joined to the American Continent. The Maritime area comprises the Territorial Sea and the Exclusive Economic Zones. This area is defined by international treaties and is administered by the Mexican Ministry of the Navy. Its size is being recalculated due to the change in the geodetic reference framework initially used.

Workforce: This estimate is based on the economically active population (EAP), defined as those aged 14 and over who during the reference period contributed to economic actively (employed population) or were actively seeking employment (unemployed population). The information comes from the National Employment Survey (ENE, 1995-2004) conducted in the second quarter of the indicated years and from the National Survey on Labour and Employment (ENOE, 2005-2015). The work force percentage was estimated using data on the total population from the same surveys. The National Employment Survey (ENE) and the National Survey on Labour and Employment (ENOE) are a joint effort by the National Institute of Statistics and Geography and the Secretariat of Labour and Social Welfare, covering all of Mexico.

From the third quarter of 2015, the age limit of the employed labor is 15 years old, under the change in the Constitution of the United Mexican States, now minimum age is 15 instead of 14 years old.

Employed labor force: Includes all people age 14 and over who during the reference week performed some kind of economic activity, such as:

  • Working for at least an hour a day, to produce goods and / or services, with or without pay.
  • Temporarily absent from work without interrupting his/her employment status.

Includes: those persons employed in the primary sector engaged in production for own consumption (except firewood collection).

From the third quarter of 2015, the age limit of the employed labor occupied is 15 years old, under the change in the Constitution of the United Mexican States, now minimum age is 15 instead of 14 years old.
  United States

Population: Totals include resident population only. All years are based on a July 1 (midyear) estimate, except 1990, 2000 and 2010, years that are Decennial Census counts based on an April 1 estimate. The Decennial Census of Population uses mail and door-to-door collection of data whereas intercensal estimates are based on population redistribution factors and statistical modeling. The Decennial counts are more accurate and are used as the benchmark standards for intercensal counts.

National population: National population figures for the U.S. represent the resident population based on the 1990, 2000,  and 2010 Census of Population and Housing. Resident population includes all people who usually live within the United States. This excludes the U.S. Armed Forces overseas and civilian U.S. citizens whose usual place of residence is outside the United States. Data include Puerto Rico and U.S. Territories.

Urban percentages: Urban percentages are based on Census Bureau definitions of metropolitan areas. In general, an urbanized area comprises one or more places (“central place”) and the adjacent densely settled surrounding territory (“urban fringe”) that together have a minimum of 50,000 persons. Data include Puerto Rico and U.S. territories. Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) definitions are used for urban population in all regions except New England. Data for New England is based on New England County Metropolitan Area (NECMA) definitions. NECMAs are composed of a county or group of related counties, whereas MSAs in New England are composed of a group of related towns. NECMA definitions are used because data based on the 2010 Decennial Census is not available at the town level.

Labor force: Labor force data represent the U.S. civilian labor force. The civilian labor force includes all U.S. citizens aged 16 and older who have jobs and also includes those without jobs but who are available for work and looking for work. This figure excludes those who work for the U.S. military. The civilian labor force data include Puerto Rico and U.S. Territories.

Area: Area is revised every ten years. Due to slight changes from year to year, the decennial value is held constant for the entire decade until the next value is released. 1990-1999 comprises the Great Lakes, inland and coastal water. The 2000 census data represented in the years 2000 and 2001 include the Great Lakes, inland, territorial and coastal water. “Inland water” consists of any lake, reservoir, pond, or similar body of water. The portions of the oceans and related large embayments (such as the Chesapeake Bay and Puget Sound), the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean Sea belonging to the U.S. and its territories are classified as “coastal” and “territorial” waters; the Great Lakes are treated as a separate water entity. Rivers and bays that empty into those bodies of water are treated as “inland water” from the point beyond which they are narrower than one nautical mile across. Identification of land and inland, coastal, territorial, and Great lakes waters is for data presentation purposes only and does not necessarily reflect their legal definitions.